Posted by: structureofnews | August 12, 2010


Aaah – another site about The Future of Journalism.

A dull one.  Without the  invective and ideology about free vs. paid, pajama-clad bloggers vs. stick-in-the-mud mainstream media curmudgeons, and Utopian visions of crowdsourced news vs. dark fears about falling standards you can find elsewhere.  It has words like taxonomy and persistent content in it; discusses business models and revenue streams in dull, accountant-like language; and tries to dissect the sparkling prose journalists turn out into tiny bytes of data.

But there is a purpose here, and it’s based around the idea that we as journalists haven’t really thought about how people are changing they’re accessing information, or about how we need to fundamentally rethink the way we carry out journalism and the kinds of – for want of a better word – products we turn out for them.

There’s much hand-wringing over the loss of the traditional business model of news, it’s true.  Perhaps too much.  And this site will contribute its share.  But hopefully it’ll also explore some of the less-explored questions about where the profession goes in a digital age.   And lay out some of the thinking behind one concrete idea that might help move the business forward: Something I’m calling Structured Journalism.

So, welcome – and I hope you find this interesting.

Posted by: structureofnews | August 21, 2014

The State of the Web

So what ails the internet, you ask?

Excellent quWastelandestion.

Luckily for you, Maciej Cegłowski and Ethan Zuckerman recently wrote two great pieces expounding on that very topic. Maciej’s text of a speech he gave at Beyond Tellerrand in Germany offers a broad survey of the built-in problems of the digital world; Ethan’s article focuses on the impact of making advertising the default business model of the internet.

Both pieces are smart, funny, depressing, insightful and well worth reading. You’ll laugh, you’ll cry.  Or you should.

But beyond encouraging you to slit your wrists while smiling, they’re also great reminders of the importance of taking a breather from chasing the latest trend – mobile! internet of things! social! big data! – to step back and survey how the basic architecture of the web, from the way it’s built to how it’s regulated to where its funding comes from, affects our lives, our industry and our journalism. It’s also a great reminder of how relatively new, unformed and plastic the landscape is; and how every time it evolves – which is to say, pretty much every year – the ground potentially shifts again.

The clearest example is in how the media business responded to the chase for advertising dollars, a consequence of what Ethan calls “the original sin of the web.”

Through successive rounds of innovation and investor storytime, we’ve trained Internet users to expect that everything they say and do online will be aggregated into profiles (which they cannot review, challenge, or change) that shape both what ads and what content they see.

(We’ll get to “investor storytime” in a sec.)

It’s true that we’ve all bought into a notion of data profiling as the price of a myriad of online services, and Ethan is right to focus his outrage and attention on that, but I’m just as unhappy about what it’s done to journalism, as Ethan also notes:

Second, not only does advertising lead to surveillance through the “investor storytime” mechanism, it creates incentives to produce and share content that generates pageviews and mouse clicks, but little thoughtful engagement.

And it’s true:  Much of the way ads are structured online encourages the disaggregation of content into pageview-friendly chunks.  There’s much less incentive to create more engaging and immersive experiences – beyond their ability, of course, to generate more clicks and pageviews.  It’s not a world particularly friendly to a Connected China or Theyrule, for example.

Not that they – and other structured journalism-type sites such as Politifact and Homicide Watch – couldn’t exist in an ad-driven world.  Read More…

Posted by: structureofnews | August 10, 2014

Game Day (Plus One)

ThumperIf you can’t say something nice, don’t say nothing at all – Thumper, in Bambi (1942)

So I’m definitely misusing Thumper‘s aw-shucks-adorably-cute line from Bambi, but that’s one of the takeaways I took away from a recent post at Poynter about the survival of sports match reports, even in a world where major games are available online and results can be found everywhere.

The post, by Roy Peter Clark, makes the case that there’s still room for great match reports when they bring more to the table than just who-won-and-how, and points to a great piece by the Washington Post’s Steven Goff on Brazil’s humilating 7-1 defeat by Germany in the World Cup semi-final – a game watched live by millions, and probably tens if not hundreds of millions. (Even me, for all of 10 minutes.  But there were four goals in that time.)  It starts:

It’s been said Brazil has never fully recovered from its greatest sporting tragedy, the 1950 home loss to Uruguay in the World Cup final. Despite proceeding to win a record five global crowns and injecting beauty into the beautiful game, for blessing the sport with legendary players such as Pele, Romario and Ronaldo, Brazil remains haunted by the ghosts of “Maracanazo” — a term capturing the heartbreak of that day before 173,000 spectators at Rio’s Maracana stadium.

After what unfolded Tuesday, a 7-1 loss to Germany in the Cup semifinals, Brazil will have to coin a new idiom to pass through the generations, an expression to capture what it looked and felt like at Estadio Mineirao, what it meant to concede four goals in six minutes of the first half, to suffer one of the most humbling setbacks in World Cup annals, to lose at home for the first time in 12 years and to equal the largest margin of defeat in its eminent history.

There’s a lot morworldcupe sociology than sport in that piece, and that makes sense.  If you’re going to have to write a second-day story about an event most people have already seen, you need to bring something else to the table than just-the-facts.  Not just because lots of people might have already watched the game, but because even for those who haven’t, machines will likely do as good a job of covering the basics, and will do it faster and cheaper than humans can.

Chicago-based Narrative Science started out Read More…

Posted by: structureofnews | July 30, 2014

Explain This

ExplainKen Doctor, as always, has a smart post about the renewed focus on “explanatory journalism” with the rise of such sites/verticals as Vox, the Upshot, Storyline and FiveThirtyEight, and asking a critical question:  What’s the bottom line?

If, in fact, in a world awash in Who/What/When/Where, readers value the connecting of dots, they’re more likely to pay for it — and to pay more for it.

Is that true?  Ken makes a strong case for the higher value of Why over Who/What/When/Where, and it’s certainly true that the world is flooded with commoditized “news” – what-just-happened stories – that drive their value and price down.  And so the relative value of contextual, explanatory news makes lots of sense to me; and what I’d argue is that we can and should do more to turn out more Why? content more regularly and more efficiently to really drive value.

But to do that we’ll need both to focus much more and – you guessed it – structure our content more.

First, back to Ken’s post, which lays out the case for explanatory journalism clearly and succinctly.  As he notes, it isn’t something new or something confined to the FiveThiryEights of this world, but a core part of daily journalism at the best news organizations in the world.

The Wall Street Journal, the FT,  The Economist, and The New Yorker are just a few of the news outfits that have long based their products on making the world a little more understandable for their readers. More recently, sites as far-flung as Quartz and the Netherlands’ De Correspondent have joined that group. What they have in common: the ability to price up for readers, or charge premium rates to advertisers, or both. Might they be on to something?

But that kind of great journalism is expensive – not to mention inherently inefficient – and as revenues at news organizations have suffered and news cycles have shortened, there’s been a temptation in many newsrooms to get on the “hamster wheel” of content generation – focusing on giving readers more and faster in an effort to keep up with competitors and drive page views.

To be sure, there’s also been a trend back to deeper investigative reporting in some newsrooms, based on the theory that it’s precisely that kind of differentiated content that will bring more dedicated and loyal readers/subscribers – an argument very similar to the one Ken makes.

The main issue – and Ken flags it well when he discusses the challenges local papers face in trying to follow this model – is that good content, whether investigative or explanatory, is more expensive and slower to produce.  Even if it does generate more revenue, will it cover its higher costs? Read More…

Posted by: structureofnews | July 29, 2014

Same Old, Same Old

newspaperJust a quick post to riff off a piece at Poynter today about the potential value embedded in news organizations’ archives – and how little of it is being tapped.

And more importantly (at least for me), a chance to reiterate that we can and should go far beyond just surfacing our timeless prose to rethinking how and what we write in the first place.

The Poynter piece, which draws on a post by media data analytics company, notes that for most publishers surveyed, less than 10 percent of traffic came from stories more than three days old. That’s not surprising, given how little is done to promote older content, but as the post notes:

Integrating evergreen posts into your distribution strategies can attract and grow readership without having to increase editorial costs.

And it’s certainly true that one of the goals of structured journalism is to extend the shelf-life of journalists’ work, in effect amortizing the costs of all that effort over time and page views.  But that should involve more than simply writing evergreen posts that will continue to be relevant for weeks; and it’s certainly also more than working up ways to flag old content to new audiences.

Sam Kirkland, who wrote the Poynter piece, focuses on the issues around pushing old stories, noting that:

My instincts say it’s weird to dig up old content without a specific reason, but it’s worth asking if our hyper-sensitivity to timeliness can get in the way of serving readers who might not care as much about news hooks or newness as we do.

Which really points the finger at where the issue is: Our hyper-sensitivity to, well, what we do, and less to what our readers might want. Sure, we care hugely about news – and it is the name of the business we’re in, although perhaps it shouldn’t be – but there are many more reader needs than are captured by a focus on what-happened-this-minute.  More importantly, by focusing on what we do (write stories) than on what readers/users want (information, context, insight – and news), we’re missing an opportunity to create stories and information the first time around that have extended shelf lives, whether as individual stories or as elements of information that can be recombined into new stories.

That’s how Politifact, Homicide Watch and Connected China were built, and it’s a structure that allows them to keep building new content on top of older content, often creating it in response to a query by a reader rather than as a one-size-fits-many story. And that, in turn, means they can lower the long-term cost of creating while letting users find more useful information when they want it.

That’s the real potential value embedded in older content for news organizations, and we need to find more ways to free it.

Posted by: structureofnews | July 21, 2014

Beyond Human

hal 9000“Robot” journalists can’t compete with humans at the things humans do best – Slate Magazine

Slate had an interesting piece the other day about “robot” journalism, doubtless prompted by the AP’s recent announcement that it would be turning to software from Automated Insights to produce thousands of corporate earnings stories. (Business news organizations like Reuters, Forbes, and probably Bloomberg have been automating stories as well, but this underscores how mainstream the technology and practice is becoming.)

The Slate piece was a smart look at the advantages and disadvantages that humans and machines bring to the exercise of producing stories, and it summarizes the state of play well.  Machines are faster, more reliable, better at crunching reams of data, and all that.  Humans are better at bringing in broader context, understanding what might be interesting to other humans, and so on.  Machines are critically handicapped by the quality of the data available to them.  Machines are cheaper than humans.  All of which is true – or mostly true, anyway.  (Machines can be very expensive to run.)

Slate’s conclusion?  Humans are better at producing journalism, as the quote above notes.

Well, sure – but is that the right question?

Horses are more empathetic than cars.  They won’t – by and large – go off a cliff by themselves if you take your eye off the road or doze off.  They’re superior at jumping over obstacles.  They don’t need messy fossil fuels to run.  In short, horses are better than cars at providing horse-type locomotion.  But as a method of mass transportation, they suck.

So – yes, humans are better at producing human-type journalism, and God knows, we need much more of that.  But is it the only thing we need, and what are machines better at producing that the world needs?

I don’t mean to suggest Read More…

Posted by: structureofnews | July 7, 2014

Time Scales

moneyWhat’s new in the news business?  Money, apparently.  And not just any money – venture capital money. The kind of money that typically chases high-growth start-ups with the potential to scale massively.

That’s certainly not the way most new journalism projects are described.  But the money is coming in, nonetheless.  As Quartz noted in a piece a couple of months ago, BuzzFeed has $46 million in funding, Vox Media $80 million, and Business Insider about $30 million.

“Our general view is that news is a growth business,” said Eric Hippeau, managing director at Lerer Ventures, which has invested in PandoDaily, The Dodo, PolicyMic, NowThis News, Circa, and elsewhere. “There are many more people are accessing and interested in and engaging with news today than ever before, thanks to technology. So we’re bullish on content and we’re bullish on news. Clearly, we have to pick the right companies. Not everybody’s going to be a winner.”

So what’s going on?  And will this all end in tears?  Perhaps, as this very smart piece at Venture Beat argues.  But even if it does, there may well be good lessons to draw from what doesn’t work.

The article, by Nicholas White, Editor-in-Chief and CEO of the Daily Dot, effectively dissects the various areas where news startups – content-creation companies, if you like, rather than technology platform shops – and VCs are likely to disappoint each other: Upfront costs, time to build a brand, lack of easy exits, and perhaps most fundamentally, problems with scaling.  Or at least, problems with scaling if we think of news and stuff that’s ephemeral.

There is a wide-ranging belief that the need for human talent on a daily basis means you’re on a cost “treadmill.” The underlying issue here isn’t really about talent—all businesses require talent — the issue is that the shelf life of the product is often days. In a tech company, what the talent produces stays fresh for 18 to 24 months.

Read More…

Posted by: structureofnews | May 23, 2014

The Architecture of Context (And Other Things)

Escher's_RelativityToday’s post is brought to you by the metaphors “architecture,” “apps,” and “by-product.”

There’s a unifying idea in here – honest! – and it’s around what we journalists think our core job is, and all the conscious and unconscious ways we build our world around that view of ourselves. That helps us focus and work more efficiently – but at the same time cuts us off from new ways of thinking and doing things. (And naturally, or this wouldn’t be this blog, it’s about why we might want to change that.)

Bear with me. If you ask a journalist what their main job is, I’m guessing most would talk about reporting and publishing the news, and most often in the form of stories, pictures or videos.  There are other things we do, of course, from curating and engaging social media to layout and design, but by and large those are seen as adjuncts to the core work of reporting and producing.

Then there are the less-obvious (or at least less-openly articulated) and more-detailed subsets of those aims that are built into every organization; consider the recently leaked report on innovation at the New York Times, which highlighted – and decried – the newsroom’s obsession with getting on page one. Not all news organizations have that same kind of focus on the front page – but almost all are obsessed with something, and generally something pretty similar.

And that can be – and often is – a good thing.  It’s hard to be good at all things, so focus matters.  And building the infrastructure around that focus – the “architecture” of a newsroom and its CMS – is what makes that focus stick. That’s why front-page stories at the Times (and at The Wall Street Journal, which at least during my years there had even more of an obsession with page one) generally sing.

But architecture can also be confining, as the Times’ internal report noted. Being focused on the front page hobbles the Times in its efforts to move to a more digital view of the world. (And as I’ve noted, having an even-more implicit focus on the primacy of the print story form means they don’t even really consider how they might rethink how reporters work).

So what does a completely different architecture look like?  Read More…

Posted by: structureofnews | May 19, 2014

Changing The Times

Innovation 1Nieman Journalism Lab calls it “one of the key documents of this media age,” and I can’t say I disagree.

To be sure, much of the contents of the leaked internal report on innovation at the New York Times aren’t surprising to anyone who’s been in the middle of the kinds of cultural and technological revolutions all mainstream/established media are grappling with – if anything, the main surprise is that even the storied NYT, with huge resources poured into its digital teams, has the same kind of problems as the rest of the mortal media world.

But it’s an important document not because of any great revelations, but because it so clearly and starkly lays out the common challenges that all legacy news organizations face – and in some ways, the issues that even some startups will have to grapple with.

There’s much to digest in the report (news of which was first broken by Buzzfeed), and you should definitely get a copy and go through it in detail. (Or at least read the Nieman summary, which is a great piece of quick curation.) As Josh Benton notes in the Nieman piece:

I doubt there is a newsroom in the world that wouldn’t benefit from understanding the cultural issues laid out below.

Absolutely.  There’s much to dig into, but a couple of key points jumped out at me – with admittedly my structured journalism filter on: It highlights the value of archive and the long tail of news; the importance of metadata and structured data to enhance the content journalists are creating everyday; the need to get beyond one-off projects and build systems and platforms that can enable better, longer-lasting journalism; and the central role newsrooms should – but aren’t – playing in developing a real strategy for the digital age.

Hey – I did say I had my structured journalism blinders on.  And even then, far as the report went, I thought it could have gone even further. Read More…

Posted by: structureofnews | April 28, 2014


So I’ve been thinking. (I know – a dangerous activity at the best of times, and ideally mitigated by the ingestion of copious amounts of Islay scotch. But I digress.)

Apropos of – well, a couple of things: Talking to Bill Adair and Laura and Chris Amico about the precepts of structured journalism, prepping for a panel discussion with them (virtually) next week in Italy, talking at length with David Caswell of Structured Stories, and a couple more things like that – it seemed like a good time to revisit the broad underpinnings of the ideas behind the blog and structured journalism. And if it doesn’t – well, hey, it’s my blog.

It’s not that the basic ideas I wrote down back on 2010 have changed; they haven’t, really. But the world has, and technology has advanced, which makes more things possible and some of the underlying needs that structured journalism addresses perhaps more pressing.

The core underlying idea remains the same as I articulated it back then:

  that the tradition “push” model of news – we tell you the latest happenings – only serves part of audiences’ needs; increasingly people turn to a “pull” model where they look for up-to-date information on specific subjects when they want it, not when events happen.

But it’s already moved on from there: People not only want news/information when they want it; they want it – and will increasingly expect it – to be personalized to them. Whether that’s stock market reports that are built around their portfolio, analyses of school results that focus on where their kids are educated, sports stories that reflect their level of interest in that team, or just the ability to explore in narrative and visualization forms a wealth of data and information, it’s increasingly possible to develop machine systems that can “write” such stories at speed and scale.

Not all stories, of course, and certainly not for all circumstances. But still a far advance on the current one-size-fits-all-audiences model. It seems to me just a matter of time before such personalized reports are available and expected. If.

If there’s enough underlying data and information to create such stories. Data and information that journalists need to go out and report, verify and collate.

Some might argue that, given how much data is being created and dispersed into the world each day, there’s no shortage of information for machines to use to build narratives. And maybe that’s true. But there is – at least currently – a shortage of well-structured, clearly verified information that professional journalists are ideally placed to create – mostly because it’s a by-product of our day-to-day activities. Read More…

Posted by: structureofnews | April 15, 2014


medalNewsdayJust a quick post to congratulate colleagues Jason Szep and Andrew R.C. Marshall for winning a Pulitzer for International Reporting, Reuters’ first in a text category, for their great coverage of the Rohingya Muslim minority in Myanmar.  Great work that had a real impact and helped save lives. 

Awarded to Jason Szep and Andrew R.C. Marshallof Reuters for their courageous reports on the violent persecution of the Rohingya, a Muslim minority in Myanmar that, in efforts to flee the country, often falls victim to predatory human-trafficking networks.

Also: Megan Twohey is a finalist in the Investigative category “for her exposure of an underground Internet marketplace where parents could bypass social welfare regulations and get rid of children they had adopted overseas but no longer wanted, the stories triggering governmental action to curb the practice.

And the amazing Goran Tomasevic is also a finalist for his series of photographs covering combal in Syria.

A really nice day to be in the Reuters newsroom.

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